Model Answers by serving Civil Services Officer for the questions asked in Chanakya’s CSE Mains 2018 Answer WRITING Challenge

Our Last week organized CSE Mains 2018 Answer Writing Challenge has proved to be a huge success with over 80 successful entries of dedicated IAS aspirants. And while we have declared the name of top 3 students, who outperformed in the challenge and won Chanakya’s Mains Test Series, there are many other dedicated students who are looking for the model answers of all those questions asked, to enhance their answer writing skills even more.

And those, who are looking for Chanakya’s Mains Test Series and practice more, can click on the link here for further details. 

And here you go with the MODEL ANSWERS written by the current officers

QUES 1.

The DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill will be expanding the application of DNA-based forensic technologies to support and strengthen the justice delivery system of the country. Critically analyse the provisions of the bill. Also, suggest some measures to strengthen the bill. 

Answer: Previously, various attempts were taken to frame a Bill in 2007, 2015, 2017 with different names such as The DNA Fingerprinting Bill, Human DNA Profiling but there are various criticisms related to these Bills such as Privacy issues, ancestry or susceptibility to a disease. So in order to address the above issues, the Union Cabinet, recently approved the DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018 with following features:-

Key features:

  1. The Bill seeks to “provide for the regulation of use and application of DNA technology.
  2. DNA regulation board: The board will certify labs authorized to carry out DNA testing and lay down procedure and guidelines for collection, storage, sharing and deletion of DNA information.
  3. DNA Data Bank: A National DNA Databank and certain regional DNA Databanks will store DNA profiles received from DNA labs in a specified format.
  4. Limited purpose: The Bill states that DNA data contained in any DNA labs and Databank “shall be used for the purpose of facilitating identification of the person and not for any other purpose.

Challenges in implementation in previous Bills:

  1. On data collection and deletion: At the time of collection of DNA data, the person will also have to provide their name, gender, address, and their caste. It does not set a limit to how long someone’s DNA will keep on record.
  2. On data use: In most countries, the DNA database is used only for criminal investigations, but India’s bill allows for a lot more. For instance, it can be used to identify victims of accidents or disasters, to identify missing persons, and for civil disputes.
  3. On privacy: With India’s poor record on citizen privacy, the tax provisions in the draft bill are worrying.
  4. On reliability: There are some circumstances when even DNA data may not be reliable.
  5. Infrastructure bottlenecks: India is not having an advanced infrastructure for implementation of these laws.

Way Forward:-

  1. Maintenance of strict confidentiality with regard to the keeping of records of DNA profiles and their use as recommended by Malimath report can be followed.
  2. Safeguard to prevent illegal collection and use of DNA data as stated by A. P. Shah Committee.
  3. Privacy issue can be handled by adopting the best practices from the world
  4. In countries like UK, DNA data of a recordable offence can be kept for only six years. This can also be adopted in India for better results.

As India is an emerging economic power hub and with increased economic activities criminal offence and governance issue need to be adapted accordingly. Hence DNA regulation bill is an extensive example of the use of scientific temper in governance and security

QUES 2.

With shared values, histories, ways of life and destinies that are interlinked, BIMSTEC represents a common space for peace and development and can be an attractive alternative and enabler of regional cooperation. Critically comment on the statement in the context of recent rhetoric posturing and impediments faced by SAARC.

Answer: BIMSTEC is an international organization comprising countries from the south and south-east Asia. Its objective is to enhance technological and economic cooperation between member countries lying on the coast of Bay of Bengal. As ambit of cooperation become difficult in SAARC due to prevailing tensions between India and Pakistan, BIMSTEC can be a good alternative to enhance India’s cooperation with countries in South East Asia.

BIMSTEC desirable alternative to SAARC:

  1. BIMSTEC makes it easier for New Delhi to share a common regional platform with its neighbours in South Asia (sans Pakistan)
  2. It helps in boosting trade and economic ties with South East Asian countries like recently they met in New Delhi to enhance coastal fishing in the region.
  3. South East countries have much more potential than other countries, India can take benefit by enhancing cooperation through BIMSTEC
  4. It also helps in boosting trade and development work which got affected due to differences between India and Pakistan
  5. It can also help India to counter China’s influence in South China Sea and balance its hegemony growing in the region.
  6. As South East Asian countries are prone to natural disasters like earthquake, floods, cyclones and tsunamis, this platform help in establishing regional cooperation to counter these disasters.

India’s Act East Policy:

BIMSTEC also help India’s in strengthening its Act East Policy:

  1. It helps India in developing its North East region which is still not developed comparative to other areas.
  2. Presently, projects like India-Myanmar-Thailand Trilateral Highway, India-Myanmar Multimodal Projects enhance the connectivity in these regions
  3. It also helps India to counter cross-border terrorism.
  4. Also, It helps India to deal with Golden Triangle comprising countries Myanmar, Thailand and Laos related to drugs supply from these regions to India.

Due to the presence of Pakistan in SAARC and rising tensions between India-Pakistan. BIMSTEC can be a good step towards regional cooperation and development with South East countries

QUES 3.

Women have not only played a significant role in various movements since independence but also used these movements as a platform to raise women issues. Discuss.

Answer: Women have faced severe discrimination in the past and did not get much respect what they deserve. This humiliation inspired the women to fight for their right and led to various women movements.

The major issues in women’s movement:

1) To get freedom from social evils like Sati, child marriage, dowry system, gender inequality.

2) Access to education and religious places.

3) To get right to vote and take part in elections.

4) Chipko Movement

5) GULABI GANG a group of social activists working for justice of oppressed and abused women

6)  WASH UNITED seeks to educate Indian communities about periods and menstruation

7) SAFETY- emerged to equip women with tools that help keep them safe from acts of sexual violence, and educate women in matters of self-defence

8) Commit to Change-which works to combat drop out rates of young girls from schools

9) Nirbhaya Movement

10) SEWA

Role of women organizations in women empowerment:

1) Mahila mandals organised by Hindu reformist organizations encouraged women to go out of the boundaries of their homes and interact with other members of society.

2) Arya Mahila Samaj promoted women education and opposed child marriage.

3) Swadhina (Self-esteemed Women) organisation focused on Empowerment of women and Child Development.

4) All India Democratic Women’s Association (AIDWA) is an independent left oriented women’s organisation committed to achieving democracy, equality and women’s emancipation.

5) The All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) is an NGO dedicated to upliftment and betterment of women.

Women Empowerment is one of the basic pillars of economic development. Various NGOs and government are taking initiatives like Beti Bachao Beti Padaho, Sukanaya Smridhi Yojna etc. to promote liberty, freedom and dignity among women.

QUES 4.

Globalization, along with bringing in cosmopolitanism in Indian society, has also cemented the existing caste structure. Critically Analyse. 

Answer: The caste system goes back to times of Rigveda. Throughout the 19th century, as India was opened up to the global economic order, castes that adapted better to the new economic opportunities rose in the social order but not in the caste structure.

Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among people, which is driven by trade and aided by information. Globalization is a two-edged sword, even if it increased and promoted material prosperity, but at a social cost.

THE FEAR OF MISSING OUT

Globalization had resulted in a stiff competition, which has generated a fear among the non-privileged section of the society- the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, which had been left ignored and suppressed for a very long time, the fear of non-inclusion. Hence, the constitution safeguarded their rights and whenever they feel their rights are threatened, they raise their voice. Thereby, further strengthening their identity as a caste.

THE FALSE SOCIAL IMPRESSION

The advancement of connectivity via social media platforms has enabled some propagandists to invoke caste unity against many legitimate works like movies on certain subjects and at the same time spread hatred.

FAILED ATTEMPT OF ECONOMIC UPLIFTMENT

Though globalization had created new rooms, it also created categories of work meant for certain castes – the menial works. Lack of skill training for a long time bound them in a certain role.

THE POLITICAL LENS

The Indian politicians have used and are still using castes as their vote bank and globalization has fuelled this approach of theirs.

GLOBALIZATION BREAKING THE WALLS

  1. Talent is the new caste: Globalization in India is about modernization and westernization which leads to change the perception of people to look towards each other through a vision of class instead of caste which gives a chance to the deprived to increase their value in the society.
  2. Economics: Globalization brings with it competition and through competition comes the way for education and development to the entire strata of the society. This leads to education, training and all the corresponding developments for the complete society.
  3. Exchange of ideas: When new ideas are exchanged and emotions shared. People learn about modernization and the way to break the strands of caste-based categorizing of people.

Globalization, through an initiative to complete the comparative deficiency of resources, results in cascading effects to boost other developments.

QUES 5.

In a new initiative to attract capable minds, the government has opened up senior-level bureaucratic posts for ‘talented and motivated’ people. Do you think there is a need for the lateral entry in Civil Services? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed initiative.

Answer: The recent decision of the government to recruit talented and specialized officials to the joint secretary post was a much-needed reform to fill the talent gap and implementing policies in a better way with greater efficiency.

Pros: 

  1. Specialisation v/s Generalised view: People with domain specialization and expertise entering the field will help in better decision making.
  2. With better decision making and specialized knowledge will allow them to make better policies and implement them with the utmost efficiency.
  3. Recently notification reveals that there is a shortfall in the bureaucracy, the lateral entry will be able to fill this gap effectively.
  4. Yielding better results will Improving government performance and efficiency.

Cons:

  1. New recruits through UPSC procedure are moulded in a certain way by the expertise wherein the feeling of service is developed in them. The lateral entry might not ensure that feeling of service.
  2. An easy way for corruption and deceit possible.
  3. Lack of transparency due to corruption which affects the performance of the system and undermines it.
  4. Lateral entry can lead to Politicization of bureaucracy.

There is no doubt that lateral entry is the solution to the existing gaps and problems encountered in the system, but with certain reforms in the lateral entry can make it better. 

  1. Minimum government and Maximum governance: Minimum involvement of government and appointment should be done by a transparent body like UPSC.
  2. Effective steps should be taken to curb the corruption in the system.
  3. Encouraging the new recruits to go for some specialization for better decision making.

Reasons for having the lateral entry:

  1. It will create space for the talent which was not showcased in the institution previously.
  2. The new challenges in upholding the credibility and catering responsibility in the services might need some which speciality that will enhance productivity and accountability.
  3. Commissions set up for civil services reforms such as Surinder Nath Committee in 2003, Hota Committee in 2004, as did the second ARC in 2005, have recommended lateral entry.

Reasons for not allowing lateral entry:

  1. A clash might emerge between those already in services, after going through vigorous training and hardcore competition and those who enter through lateral entry. It will hamper the severance of “good governance”.
  2. Partial selections from the private services will jeopardise the purpose of having the lateral entry.
  3. There is no guarantee that those who succeeded in corporate sectors, will surely succeed in the administration of law and order.

India civil services portray all the 10 characteristics of Weberian Ideal bureaucracy. For example hierarchy, the division of power. Reforms are the need of the moment, internal and external, an insulation from pressure from the political executive, lateral entry and more mechanisms to ensure accountability, neutrality and transparency.

QUES 6

Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) have become an essential part of International Relations and are projected to be as a situation of a win-win for all the involved parties. However, there are apprehensions that at present scenario India cannot reap its benefits to the fullest. Discuss. 

Answer: “The value of a thing is what that thing will bring”

A Free Trade Agreement [FTA] is an agreement between countries to reduce or eliminate barriers to trade. It includes tariff barriers like taxes and non-tariff barriers like regulatory laws.

Increased economic growth, lower government spending and transfer of technology are few of the advantages of FTAs. But they also have their share of criticism like –the attempt by powerful economies to impose their will over smaller developing nations. Also, the concern of alignments of jurisdiction and trend of creating economic instability by larger economic blocs in developing regions are few among the concerns.

India is among the fastest growing economies in the world and has economic relations with all the regions of the world. We have FTAs with different nations and associations like- ASEAN [ASEAN –India free trade area], RCEP [Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership], Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore [different from ASEAN] and are in negotiations with European Union.

FTAs have helped India boost its exports by opening a wider market and at the same time offering its citizens the access to wider choices. But, at the same time, it is believed that India’s partner has benefitted more from FTAs. There are concerns of India’s sectors of the economy getting adversely affected by FTAs.

Some of the concerns are as follows:

  1. The agricultural sector of India’s which faces issues like obsolete technology, fragmented land holdings and lower productivity will be in a crisis if India’s market is flooded by products from nations having an efficient agricultural sector.
  2. ASEAN-India FTA {AIFTA} has made India’s domestic market face stiff competition from cheaper goods of ASEAN region
  3. India is the pharmaceutical hub of the world and caters the need of its widely growing population; FTA with Japan would weaken the generic pharmaceutical sector and make medicines expensive and inaccessible to the poor.
  4. Dairy industry of India which has started growing will be adversely affected by strong dairy sector of New Zealand under FTA.
  5. The industrial sector of India is in the nascent stage and the MAKE IN INDIA program is making efforts for its revival. The same would be affected by FTA with stronger economies.

Despite having a strong service sector in few categories like IT, there are sectors like agricultural, industry and MSMEs which are not mature enough for India to compete in open markets.   Moreover, with the world’s strongest economies like the USA taking domestic trade-boosting measures, India also needs proper deliberation and understanding of the situation and act accordingly.

QUES 7

How would you distinguish between the ‘Code of Ethics’ and ‘Code of Conduct’? What according to you is more relevant in the contemporary bureaucratic set-up? Justify with suitable examples. 

Answer: “Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to do and what is right to do”

Code of Ethics are actions of an individual or an organisation based on social or moral principles, which guide the course of action and not dictate. These can be varied from situation to situation, but the outer lining of morality remains the same.

Code of Conduct are ruled specific.  They are guidelines and procedure which are meant to be followed without much alteration. They help to prevent conflict of interests.

Difference between the two can be understood by following examples:

Example 1: Lord Ram believed that in his Rajya ‘Principle of Purity ’should be maintained. So, when he heard people suspecting and questioning the chastity of Sita, he abandoned her without giving a fair chance to prove herself. The incident exemplifies, that Code of Conduct was kept above the Code of Ethics.

Example 2: In the recent past, a Public Distribution Supply {PDS} officer in Madhya Pradesh came to know of a woman suffering from leprosy being denied ration as she had last her finger digits to the disease. He decided to provide her ration from his quota, where otherwise the law wouldn’t have permitted, showing that her code of ethics were kept above that of conduct.

In the current bureaucratic setup, a fine balance between the two set of codes is required.

Bureaucrats are government servants, answerable to the government, which in turn is answerable to the public; hence, the ultimate aim is the service of the public. But, here the path is taken to ensure public welfare also matters to have a fair, transparent and unbiased process.

In a recent incident, the District Magistrate of Rudra Prayag {Uttarakhand}, roped in his wife to teach science in a government school as the boards of class 10th was approaching and the school was yet to find a teacher. This incident displays higher ground of ethics than mere conduct.

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